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First we must realize that Pure Black Castings™ is an all-natural product that is capable of making the transition from synthetic fertilizers & pesticides to an esthetic turf management system improving the health of the soil, the health of the workers applying the Black Castings™ and the members & public using the course.


1. Compost: This is a very good product that adds organic matter & soil microbes to the soil. This is excellent for gardening and farming but not good for golf courses. Here are some of the problems created with compost.

  • This is food for the earthworms.
  • When applied to the surface,. it is very slow to break down.
  • Promotes the layering effect and creates an anaerobic zone.
  • Increases thatch.
  • Adversely effects infiltration rates.
  • Immature compost will harm turf and pull nitrogen from the soil.
  • Very difficult to predict results in different batches of compost.
  • Often contains chemical contaminates and root feeding nematodes.
  • Compost tea must be brewed for 8 to 24 hours, used within 24 hours and requires frequent lab testing.

2. Vermicompost: This is a very good product that adds organic matter & soil microbes to the soil. It also contains a lot of beneficial nutrients and micronutrients. It is usually sold as worm castings, but as the name implies it contains worm castings and unconsumed organic matter. That is really good, but when you buy vermicompost you do not know how much of the material is worm castings and how much of the material is compost. Most vermicompost is manure/yard waste based that has not been composted to kill the pathogenic bacteria, weed seed and root feeding nematodes. Here are some of the problems created with vermicompost.

  • All of the above problems exist, but the are not as noticeable.
  • When 8 oz. of vermicompost is placed in a 2 liter clear plastic jug, with water, and shaken, you will see the lack of quality in vermicompost.
  • The brewed vermicompost tea is usually a better quality, but it is still recommended to use the tea within 24 hours.

3. This product is produced indoor in a climate-controlled facility under strict quality control standards. This is a new dimension for the production of a great fertilizer that just happens to be certified for organic use. This patented system is the culmination of 25 years of slowly transitioning from composting to vermicomposting and finally developing a system that works and does not contain any worms or worm eggs. Here is how it works:

  • The worms in our facility are in an environment very similar to their natural environment.
  • They consume the feedstock over and over again, until the microbes have broken down all of the organic matter.
  • There are natural microbes such as yeast, phototropic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, actinomycetes & mycorrhizal fungi present in the worms gut.
  • The soil microbes very rapidly reproduce because their average life span is two hours. When the microbes die,, they release the nutrients and decomposed organic matter that the worms feed on. Worm have no teeth, they cannot consume the organic matter until the microbes break it down. The microbes both internally and externally are converting the inorganic minerals to the organic form.
  • The sum of the energy and exudates from the dying microbes are used to feed other members of the soil microbial food web. They all end up going through the worm's gut and being coated with organic calcium from their calciferous gland, This happens over and over again. Each time it passes though the worm another layer of nutrients, humic acid, and live microbes is contained within the calcium coating. It is the different number of layers that gives the sustained release effect of the Pure Black Castings™.
  • There is also nitrogen-fixing bacteria that convert nitrogen (N2) from the air into a form the plant can use. The microbes enhance soil structure, which improves infiltration and degradation of pollutants. A sterile environment caused by chemicals compacts causing run off.
  • Each cast is covered with various thickness of calcium that enables the pure Black Castings™ to be effective over a long period of time. As the moisture dissolves the calcium, it is an immediate food source for the plants. Once the calcium has been dissolved, the nutrients, micronutrients, and microbes will be released into the root zone creating a healthy soil food web. You will not see any layering effects with Pure Black Castings™.
  • A liquid extract can be prepared on site that takes two hours to produce 500 gal. It may be stored up to two months, and does not need aeration or heat to produce. The extractor comes with an injector for the irrigation system. The liquid is quite effective in controlling plant disease by competing with the disease-causing organisms, such as phythium, fusarium, dollar spot, etc.
  • Each year for 3 years you use less and less Pure Black Castings™. It just depends on how sterile your soil is and how much you cut back on the synthetic nitrogen and pesticide use.
  • Eliminates the food source for earthworms and they will go away.

I have often wondered about a story in National Geographic about, a partially eaten hot dog that was found in it's original state when mining a 40 year old landfill. The article never said why. All the chemicals dumped there had sterilized the landfill. There were no microbes to break down the hot dog at the time it was first buried there. If you stop or reduce using the pesticides and synthetic fertilizer, then your hotdog will disappear along with your apprehension about layering, etc.

10-31-05 Revised by Larry Martin, Owner Vermitechnology Unlimited....


EM is a culture of microorganisms developed by Dr. Higa from the U. of Ryukges, Okinawa, Japan. EM, such as Effective Microorganisms, Efficient Microbes (EM)™, and EM-Farming is comprised primarily of phototropic bacteria (nitrogen fixation), lactic acid bacteria, yeast, actinomycetes and fermenting fungi that are all compatible with one another. When introduced into the natural environment, their individual beneficial effects are greatly enhanced.

1. Phototropic Bacteria synthesizes useful substances from secretions of roots, organic matter or harmful gases by using sunlight and heat of soil as energy sources. The useful substances are comprised of amino acids, nucleic acids, bioactive substances and sugars, all of which promote plant growth and development. These metabolites are absorbed into the plant directly and act as substrates for increasing mycorrhiza in the rhizophere.

2. Lactic Acid Bacteria produces lactic acid from sugars of other carbohydrates produced by phototropic bacteria and yeast. Lactic acid suppresses harmful microbes and increases rapid decomposition of organic matter such as lignin and cellulose. The occurrence of nematodes gradually disappears as the lactic acid suppresses the propagation & functions of fusarium.

3. Yeast synthesizes antimicrobial and useful substances for plant growth from amino acids and sugars secreted by phototropic bacteria. Yeast produces bioactive substances such as hormones and enzymes that support active cell and root division. Their secretions are useful substrates of lactic acids and actinomycetes.

4. Actinomycetes structure is intermediate to that of bacteria and fungus. They produce antimicrobial substances from the amino acids secreted by phototropic bacteria and organic matter. These antimicrobial substances suppress harmful fungi & bacteria, but coexist with the phototrobes.

5. Fermenting Fungi such as Aspergillums & Penicillium decompose organic matter rapidly to produce alcohol, esters and antimicrobial substances. These suppress odors and prevent infestation of harmful insects & maggots.

NOTE: all of the EM species have their own important function. However, the phototropic bacteria are what make it all work and co-exist in a well-balanced ecosystem.


Why and How it Works
Revised 11/06/05 By Larry Martin, VTU

First we must consider all the information on how well "Compost Tea" works. Secondly we must consider that it only works as well as the compost that is "brewed" from. And lastly let us keep in mind the vermicompost, which most worm farmers call worm castings, is no more than compost taken to near completion.

We all know of the research done on the West Coast with the Compost Tea. There is no denying that it is very good, but is not always practical to use, results cannot always be replicated. Can you go to the store and buy quality compost? There are too many variables using compost tea production. It cost you a ton of money testing your soil and then testing compost tea to see if it is safe to use. Hopefully you will achieve the desired results after each application.

Now consider having a product the removes all the variables (compost) and is pure worm castings. We now have a product that does just that - called Black Castings TM. This is very important feature of our pure BLACK CASTINGSTM. What does this mean to the end user of our product? It means results from every ton of pure Black Castings TM will always be the same, no surprises – just consistent results.

Lets compare the ease of preparing the Pure Worm Castings Liquid Extract to Brewing Compost Tea. It takes 2 hours to "Extract" the nutrients from the pure Black Castings TM. Elaine Ingham recommends 24 to 48hrs to brew the compost tea. Each of the black coffee ground like cast contain microbes, minerals and nutrients wrapped in a coating of plant ready Calcium. In 2 hours, this calcium coating is dissolved and the microbes, minerals, and nutrients are released ready to use. No other ingredients such as sea kelp, molasses, rock dust, citric acid, or other very costly additives are necessary. Again, there are NO VARIABLES to deal with and NO filtering is necessary.

Soluble Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potash are the main nutrients in this extract. Hormones such as Cytokines, Auxins, etc. Vitamins, Enzymes, and many useful microbes such as heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, nitrogen fixers, phosphate stabilizers are all present in this extract. It is also rich in micronutrients that are easily available for plants.

How does the pure "Black Castings" liquid extract work?

The microbes consume the food that the plants put out. The exudates from the leaves and the roots increase the disease suppressive bacteria and fungi properties of the extract. This eliminates the food source for disease causing organisms. Chemical use destroys the natural occurring soil organisms, which opens the door for the different plant diseases. This is a lot like cancer. Why do researchers find cures instead of eliminated the cause of cancer? It is quite simple. Both the research industry (grants to academia) and the pharmaceutical companies would be devastated.

  • The microbes may consume disease-causing organisms, occupy the space around the plant or may compete for the food source at the infection site.
  • They also produce compounds that inhibit growth of disease causing organism.
  • This liquid extract contains soluble nutrients that feed the plant and soil organisms that support the disease-suppressing organisms.
  • The microbes retain nutrients in the soil around the plants so additional fertilizer will not be needed and will not leach into the ground water. They make nutrients available to plants at the rates plants require.
  • They detoxify the soil and water to promote aerobic conditions. They build soil structure that allows water and air to reach the root system. Well aerated and moisture holding soils result in healthier plants that require less water.
  • Healthy soils grow healthy plants. You have to treat the problem not the symptom.

The equipment and procedure for making the liquid product need not to be expensive, difficult to operate, or require costly lab analysis. This is not rocket science!!!

I have been working with a 4th year agronomy student that was told that he could not do his grad studies on plant utilization of the extract and the Pure Black Castings™ because the University would loose all of their grant money provided by the chemical companies. Does this surprise anyone? I don't think so. This will never change until the people demand to have nutritional food and water that is not contaminated with chemicals used to grow food and turf.

NOTE: It is advised to use one ton 8- acre per ear of the Pure Black Castings™ to dress your soil. This adds microbes that the soil may be lacking and gives a slow release nutrient source to the soil microorganisms. The plant growth regulators will assure a sustainable growth and production rate. Using the liquid extract with the Pure Black Castings™ is a complete stand-alone plant growth management system. It does not get any better than this.


February 1, 2005

Mr. Rusty Fuller
Dalhousie Golf Club
5670 Bloomfield Road
Cape Girardeau, MO 63701

Dear Rusty:

Enclosed are the analysis results for the compost sample that you sent to us from Dalhousie Golf Club,


Analysis (As Reed)

Total (lb/ton)
  Total Nitrogen
ppm Zn
ppm Mu
d 84
ppm Cu
ppm B
Organic Matter
Carbon: Nitrogen ratio
EC (Saturated Pasta) mmho/cm 29
David W. York, Ph.D. + Turfgrass Consultant
405 Glade Mill Rood • Valencia, PA 16059 - Phone/FAX 724.898.2329
Organic Matter
Carbon: Nitrogen ratio
EC (Saturated Pasta) mmho/cm 29


Submitted by Rusty Fuller, Dalhousie Golf Course Superintendent Lab ID. No. 1825-1 Pure Black Castings™

  • Moisture: 52% - Great this moisture is needed for the balance of microbes and nutrients in the pure worm castings.
  • Organic: 61.7% - Fantastic, just right for plant root growth, but will not layer.
  • PH: 5.3 – In the low preferred range.
  • Water Holding 307% by wt: This is great to reduce the amount of water needed to sustain turf and other plant growth. It holds the moisture without getting soggy. Organic peat turns into mud, but the moisture will flow through the castings when they have reached their water hold capacity.
  • Bulk Density: 31.0 pound/cu.ft.
  • Organic Yield: 9.03 LB OM/cu.ft. – Excellent, no thatch, no layering when using pure Black Castings.

Evaluation by:
Scott Prospect,
BS Plant pathology/Horticulture

NOTE FROM: Larry Martin, owner of Vermitechnology Unlimited and developer of the Pure Black Castings™.

There are many companies that are blending my Pure Black Castings™ with their product to make them better, but they choose anonymity and I respect that. It takes a really confident superintendent to leave his comfort zone to use this product. I do not have high-pressure sales staff to market this product to every golf course in the US. I have to be selective, not only with the owners and manager, but also with the superintendents. I have seen a superintendent fired because he would not order the castings and his assistant threw the Pure Black Castings™ over the side of the hill. He told management that there were weeds growing out of this product. Pure Black Castings™ just happens to be nematode, weed seed, and worm free. I'm glad that this happened because would have never guessed that it could happen in a thousand years. So we will continue to grow slowly only doubling our production every year and make sure that we spend the needed time with each golf course to make sure that they are comfortable.

I assure you that you see the same results year after year. The product will have the same earthy smell, feels the same, look the same and work the same year after year.

Hopefully I can help the turf school programs write this into their curriculums so that the new turffies will be knowledgeable in this simple new turf management program that just happens be approved for all environmentally sensitive areas.

George Spoerri Inc. of Encinitas, CA — has been using Pure Black Castings™ over the past six years for everything from the use in the avocado farms to Estate landscape management such as the Mars Family Estate on the Ocean in Southern, California. George is an expert in growing turf and trees with environmentally friendly products. He uses this product both full strength and in blends with his own products and as a liquid fertilizer. He is writing the book on the introduction of Pure Black Castings™ products into landscape planning and maintenance using Pure Black Castings™ and the liquid extract from the castings.

Blackhawk Golf Course in Danville, CA — is the latest golf course to utilize the full pure Black Castings program. After evaluating our program for 6 weeks, they were amazed at the results seen two big problem areas. The high traffic areas were greatly improved both in quick germination during over-seeding and holding up to the traffic. The other area around a drainage low spot that continually presented problem was drastically improved to the extent of deciding to go with our turf and lagoon management program. Larry Norman, Superintendent

Joey Jacobson, Assistant —

Silverado Golf Course in Napa, CA — has been using Pure Black Castings™, the Black Castings Liquid Extract and the lagoon management with microbes for the past two years with fantastic results. All the landscaping has benefited great with the Black Castings being applied during transplanting and growing in period. A considerable cost savings as well as reduction in man-hours was noted after the first full year of using our turf and lagoon management program.

Bill Hamilton, Superintendent


Tom Vanderwalle is Superintendent at Sunset Country Club in St. Louis, Mo. In 2003, he used Black Castings on the golf course and ornaments and has doubled his order for 2004. (2nd year) TEL: 314-849-4458

Philip Rossi, I.P.M. Coordinator for Recreation and Park Department for the City of San Francisco has used the Pure Black Castings™ since 2002 with great results on two of the City golf courses. Also used in the Hyde Park Flower Conservatory. (4th year)

Mike Jeffords, vintner from Metropolis, IL has had fantastic results with using the Pure Black Castings™ in his organic certified vineyard. He is using the liquid extract to control powdery mildew and as a foliate fertilizer. The health and rapid growth of the new vines was amazing. (2nd year)

Bob Tiffany, citrus grower in Myakka, FL in 2003 planted a new 20-acre experimental grove for Tropicana using the Pure Black Castings™ in the potting mix and also the liquid extract as a foliate fertilizer. He is having excellent results in the growth and health of his new grove and expects to get grove into production a year earlier than conventional growing methods.

Ray Belcher of Sunday's Harvest in Vacaville, CA has been using the Pure Black Castings™ growing media for three years and is a certified organic grower. No other microgreens grower can compare to the color, flavor or extended shelf life of his products. You know that your growing media is good when the chefs can pick your product out from your competitors when they all have the jobbers label on them. (5th year)

Richard Ulrich of Costa Rico has recently introduced the worm castings and the liquid extract to the pineapple and coffee plantations. Now that the "show me" phase has concluded, both are buying a lot of both products. They are very guarded about the results and will not share information. (3rd year)

Tucker Taylor, General Manger of Woodland Gardens certified organic farm in Winterville, GA has three years of both farm and greenhouse use of pure Black Castings and is still amazed with the results in all aspects of it's use in horticulture. Tucker has found that it is a stand-alone organic fertilizer that works it's magic on everything from tomatoes to tubers to orchids. It is easy to use with consistent results. (3rd year)

Scott Prospect, Owner of Organic Prospects, Inc. from Gainesville, FL. is in his third year using pure Black Castings on his farm. Initially in the side-by-side trials with the conventional growing methods yielded greater results using this product. He found that the plants matured quicker, grew stronger plants, was more disease resistant, greater yields and was ready for harvest before the conventional plants. He found that hitting the early market and also cutting the market loss of produce after it left the farm increased his bottom line considerably. (4th year) TEL: 352-745-0815

Dr. McSorley, a professor of nematology at the University of Florida started a two-year research project comparing the use of the pure Black Castings & the pure Black Castings Liquid extract to the use of Methyl Bromide in nematode control. The preliminary results on the St. Augustine grass, Caladium flowers and the Okra look very promising. Preliminary results of the tissue and root analysis and the Okra yields will be released this Fall.

The Bridges Golf Course, Joe Distifano from Montrose, CO is having great results using the Pure Black Castings™ in the construction phase of his new golf course. He is now in his second year of using the product. (2nd year)

Other Casting Testimonials:

Chef Association of the Pacific Coast, Inc

19 November 2003 Written By Rusty Fuller, Superintendent
Cell Phone: (573) 579-3729 Dalhousie Golf Club Cape Girardeau, MO.

Worm castings have been used as a fertilizer for many years. In 1986 the public began looking for alternative to chemical and synthetic fertilizers. It was not long before most organic growers had used the worm castings and began talking about them to garden clubs, gardeners and friends. In 1991 Larry Martin, of Vermitechnology Unlimited of Florida started documenting research on worm castings and its effects on plant growth. By the turn of the century, he had perfected and patented the formulation and production for pure worm castings. The consistently high range of Biodiversity is a mark of excellence in the quality of this product. Since then commercial growers in all types of horticulture and agriculture has starting using worm castings. Sales of the Pure Black Castings have doubled and now tripled each year. In 2001 at the GCSAA convention in Orlando, Florida I met Larry on my Environmental Seminar at Disney Wild Life Refuge. He showed me the results of plant growth using the Black Castings with before and after photos.

Upon my return to Dalhousie Golf Club, we began an aggressive program with the purchase of 10 tons of the pure Black Castings. We are finishing our 2nd year of a 3 year program and seeing amazing results. We have used 70 tons of Black Castings all over this upscale Nicklaus Designed in Cape Girardeau, MO. Golf Digest ranks it in the top ten best new private clubs for 2003.

Superintendent Rusty Fuller, MS in Horticulture at University of Missouri has 14 years of transition zone experience. Had spend 6 years at Bellerive CC and Boone Valley Golf Club, both have hosted PGA events before construction of Dalhousie Golf Club. He has used the casting in New Construction, Rough, Fairways, Tees, Greens, Bunker Faces, Divot Mix and Ornamental Landscape Plants. In 2002 the first year of grow-in situation at Dalhousie Golf Club, we had 45 days of above 90's and 60 days without rain. The treated areas were able to hang on through the stress. The second year we had a great turf year. One of the biggest achievements with the Black Castings was deep root structure with multiple feeder roots. The turf was able to handle stress in the heat of the summer. With the pure worm castings we were able to achieve a low mowing height of .084".

We were able to keep fast greens, which were alb attributed to the large root mass. The roots on greens were never above 10". Our Bentgrass Tees and Tall Fescue/Bluegrass Rough all had similar results in rooting and showed great drought and disease resistance. These phenomenal results are attributed to the Pure Black Castings™ used at Dalhousie Golf Club.

Dave McIntosh, agronomist and consultant has first hand information about the positive results of the pure Black Castings used on the Dalhousie course.